Archive for the ‘risk management’ Tag

On board culture and diversity

Corporate governance thinking and practice seems to evolve either as regulators respond to corporate failings or directors adopt the prevailing conventional wisdom.  A year or two ago, the call was for boards to recognize their responsibility for identifying their company’s risk profile, assessing long-term risk, and ensuring appropriate risk  strategies and policies were in place and working appropriately.   Cadbury and the other early corporate governance codes had nothing to say about risk: now it has become a central issue.

Today, the conventional wisdom is focusing on board culture and board diversity.  But commentators seem unable to agree on what is actually meant by culture or diversity.  The time has come for some clearer thinking.

In March this year, I wrote in this blog that culture ‘can be thought of as the beliefs, expectations, and values that people share.  Like the skins of an onion, culture has many layers – national cultures, regional cultures, the culture of a company, and the culture in a board room.’  Much of the recent commentary about culture in corporate governance has focused on board level culture and its reflection on the culture of the company. so that it permeates activity at every level and in every sphere.

In its February 2017 report on corporate governance reform[1], the UK Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy identified culture as ‘the central tenet of good corporate governance (which) should be embedded in the culture of all companies, so that it permeates activity at every level and in every sphere.’  Now what does that actually mean?  What do directors need to do to make it operational?

Board level culture depends on the experience, beliefs and expectations of those involved and, in particular on the leadership of the bard chairman and any other dominant personalities on the board.

Composition of boards

Companies should recruit executive and non-executive directors from the widest possible base.

The Report supports the recommendations of recent reviews on gender and ethnic diversity but recommends further measures ‘to ensure that diversity is promoted at all stages of careers to broaden the pool of talent at the executive level. To this end, the Government should set a target that from May 2020 at least half of all new appointments to senior and executive management level positions in the FTSE350 and all listed companies should be women.’ Overall, the Report’s recommendations are aimed at permanently ingraining ‘the values and behaviours of excellent corporate governance into the culture of British business.’

 

[1] For more information see the most recent blog from Professor Chris Mallin on this website.

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Risk Management

One of the main areas in corporate governance that has caught the headlines recently is risk management.  There is a widely held perception that in recent years many boards have not managed the risks associated with their businesses well – whether that was because they did not identify the risks fully or whether because having identified the risks, they did not take appropriate action to manage them.

 Review of UK’s Combined Code

The Financial Reporting Council (FRC)’s Review of the UK’s Combined Code published in December 2009 http://www.frc.org.uk/corporate/reviewCombined.cfm states that ‘One of the strongest themes to emerge from the review was the need for boards to take responsibility for assessing the major risks facing the company, agreeing the company’s risk profile and tolerance of risk, and overseeing the risk management systems. There was a view that not all boards had carried out this role adequately and in discussion with the

chairmen of listed companies many agreed that the financial crisis had led their boards to devote more time to consideration of the major risks facing the company.’  The FRC therefore proposes to make the board’s responsibility for risk more explicit in the Code through a new principle and provision.  Moreover it also intends to carry out a limited review of the Turnbull Guidance on internal control during 2010.  

Many companies, and especially those in the financial sector, have already established risk committees whilst other companies especially smaller companies, may combine the consideration of risk with the role and responsibilities of the audit committee.

Alternative investment market

The UK’s Alternative Investment Market (AIM) expanded rapidly during the 12 years following its inception in 1995.  Then from 2007 onwards it went into decline.  David Blackwell, in his article ‘Signs of recovery seen after years of famine’ (FT, page 23, 16th December 2009) states that ‘Hundreds of companies have left the market, the number of flotations has collapsed and fines for Regal Petroleum and others – albeit for regulatory infringements dating back years – have once again sullied the market’s reputation’.  Nonetheless he points out that 2009 saw an improvement with the AIM index rising by 62 per cent over the year compared to a rise of 22 per cent in the FTSE 100. 

The lighter regulatory touch on AIM has both attractions and drawbacks.  On the one hand, companies find it easier to gain a London listing (albeit on AIM rather than the main market); on the other hand, this may bring concomitant risks for investors as they will be investing in companies which may well be riskier than their main market counterparts.

Family firms

Family firms are the dominant form of business in many countries around the world and range from very small businesses to multinational corporations.  Richard Milne in his article ‘Blood ties serve business well during the crisis’ (FT, Page 19, 28th December 2009) points out that the attributes of a typical family business will have stood it in good stead during the recent financial crisis: ‘Long-term thinking, conservative, risk-averse: the very characteristics of the typical family business seem to be the ones needed in the economic crisis of the past two years’.  Given that they tend to be more conservative, family firms will take less risks, for example, by not over extending themselves with their gearing (leverage).

Banks and financial institutions

Many banks and financial institutions were widely criticised because of the perceived overly generous bonuses paid to some executive directors and senior management at a time when the world is suffering the consequences of a global financial crisis precipitated by bankers who did not seem to fully appreciate the risks involved with some of the products they were trading in.  And yet already we see banks again paying out enormous bonuses.  Megan Murphy in her article ‘Tycoon attacks return of bankers’ bonuses’ (FT, Page 3, 28th December 2009) quotes Guy Hands, the private equity tycoon, who is highly critical of these big bonuses and speaks of bankers ‘taking home “wheelbarrows of money” on the back of taxpayers’ support’.  Moreover he is quoted as saying ‘It cannot be right to continue with a system that allows risk to be taken in the knowledge that, if things go right, bankers will take on average 60-80 per cent of the profits generated through compensation and, if they go wrong, shareholders and ultimately the government will pick up the costs’.

Asset managers

Managing risk is, of course, relevant to all parties in the business and financial world as the article by Sophia Grene ‘Managing risk is the main task ahead’ (FTfm, Pg 1, 4thJanuary 2010) illustrates.  In her article, Sophia points out that ‘many financial models failed in the past two years as markets demonstrated they did not behave according to conventional assumptions’ and that ‘the main challenge for asset managers in the coming decade is understanding, managing and communicating risk’.

Concluding comments

Managing risk and managing it well is an important consideration for boards of directors, whether in main market firms, second tier markets, or family firms.  Firms, and especially those in the banking and financial sector, need to pay particular attention to executive director remuneration packages which should not encourage adverse decision-making in terms of the impact on risk, that is, remuneration packages should be designed so that they do not lead to unacceptable risk-taking which may be to the detriment of the long-term sustainability of the company and potentially, as we have already seen, the wider economy.

Please refer to the newly published third edition of my book ‘Corporate Governance’ for updates to various national and international corporate governance codes and guidelines; board committees including risk and ethics committees; the Alternative Investment Market (AIM); family firms; remuneration packages, and the global financial crisis.  

In addition, new material on many other areas including: private equity and sovereign wealth funds; governance in NGOs, public sector/non-profit organisations, and charities; and board diversity.  Many examples, mini case studies and clippings from the Financial Times are included to illustrate the application of corporate governance in the real world.

 Chris Mallin 7th January 2010

Banks in crisis: failures of corporate governance?

Corporate governance has been gaining more predominance around the world over the last decade.  However the last year or so which has brought the financial crisis and the ‘credit crunch’ has seen an unprecedented interest in some of the areas that are central to corporate governance: executive remuneration; boards of directors, independent non-executive directors; internal controls and risk management; the role of shareholders.

However the focus on these areas has brought into sharp relief some of the failings of the present system whether these have been brought about by greed, naivity, or a lack of real appreciation of the risk exposures of banks.

Bankers’ bonuses
Whilst many would agree that bankers have received huge payouts, often for a seeming failing company, bonuses appear likely to be cut, possibly by around 40% or more.  Peter Thal Larsen and Adrian Cox (FT, Page 13, 07/08 Feb 09) in their article ‘Barclays bankers braced for bonus cut’ highlight that even much reduced bonuses are likely to be controversial given that feelings are running high amongst the public and politicians alike.

The generous remuneration packages of executive directors of some of the UK’s largest banks have caught the headlines day after day in recent weeks.  In their article Former executives face bonus grilling’ (FT Page 2, 9th Feb 09), George Parker and Daniel Thomas mention an interesting historical fact ‘in the early 18th century, after the bursting of the South Sea bubble, a parliamentary resolution proposed that bankers be tied up in sacks filled with snakes and thrown into the River Thames’!  No doubt there are those who wish the same might happen today although a grilling before the Commons Treasury Committee may prove to be almost as unpleasant an experience!

Adrian Cox’s article ‘Barclays executives must wait longer for bonuses’ (FT, page 2, 11th Feb 09) highlights that Barclays is trying to design a pay structure that retains staff whilst rewarding long-term performance at a time when banks have been urged to show ‘moral responsibility’ in their remuneration structures.  The pay restructuring will affect not just directors but also senior employees, and other banks including UBS, Credit Suisse, RBS and Lloyds are in a similar position.

Risk Management

‘Former HBOS chiefs accused over risk controls as bankers apologise’ was the striking head of the article by Jane Croft, Peter Thal Larsen and George Parker (FT, page 1, 11th Feb 09).  Under questioning from the Commons Treasury Committee, Lord Stevenson, Andy Hornby, Sir Tom McKillop and Sir Fred Goodwin all apologised for what had happened at RBS.  Part of the questioning brought to light that a former employee had warned the board of potential risks associated with the bank’s rapid expansion.

Risk management is an area that is bound to gain a higher profile given the extent of the impact of the use of toxic assets which many feel were not well understood.

Where were the institutional shareholders?

Lord Myners, the City minister, has urged shareholders to challenge banks ‘Myners calls on shareholders to challenge reward cultures’ by Adrian Cox and Kate Burgess (FT page 3, 10th Feb 09). Lord Myners, they state, said that’ institutional investors should look at the content of remuneration reports and ask questions if the data are complex or opaque’.

My view is that it is an ongoing debate as to what extent institutional shareholders should intervene in the affairs of the companies in which they invest (investee companies).  It is widely recognised that engagement and dialogue are useful and necessary for an institutional investor to monitor the activities of investee companies.  However there is a line to be drawn between what it is feasible – and desirable – for the institutional shareholders to do, and what might be seen as undesirable and restrictive.

Sophia Grene article  ‘Funds say they did all they could to warn banks’ (FT, page 9, 8th Feb 09) highlights the view of the UK’s Investment Management Association that ‘fund managers did all they could to prevent banks hurtling to their doom, but under the current system, shareholders cannot shout loud enough to be heard’  The IMA also indicated a possible way forward for the future ‘investors can only do so much…..maybe we need to take a closer look at how investors and non-executive directors interact.  They’re privy to much more information than the investors’.

Walker Review of the Corporate Governance of the Banking Industry

Sir David Walker has been appointed to lead a review of the corporate governance of the banking industry which will look into remuneration and bonuses, risk management and board composition. The terms of reference can be found at:

http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/press_10_09.htm

Bankers abroad

In the US, President Obama has brought in reforms to limit the remuneration of executives to $500,000 at banks which have had a bail out.  Shares could also be given under incentive plans but would only vest once government support had been repaid, ‘Obama gets tough on pay for executives’, Alan Beattie and Edward Luce (FT page 1, 5th Feb 09).
Chris Mallin